Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (S. canadensis)
Common names: Common Elderberry, American Elder
Family: Caprifoliaceae
Physiographic Region(s) Inhabited by Plant:
Mountain Piedmont Coastal Plain
Region: Mountain, Piedmont, Coastal Plain
States: Washington, DC, Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia
Plant Type: Shrub, Medium
Height: 6 - 12 feet
Spreads: 6 - 12 feet
Sun Exposure: Full Sun, Partial Sun, Shade
Soil Texture: Organic, Clay, Loamy, Sandy
Soil Moisture: Dry, Moist, Wet
pH: 6.1 - 7.5
Blooms in: June to July
Bloom Color: white
Bears Fruit: August to September
Fruit Type: berry
Fruit Color: purple to black
Fall Color: yellow green
Evergreen: no
Ground Cover: no
fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, swamps, wet meadows, moist woods, old fields
Wildlife Use: Song Birds, Small Mammals
Notes: flat-topped flower clusters produce clusters of edible berries, eaten by 48 species of birds; grows in almost any soil