Ilex verticillata
Common names: Winterberry, Winterberry Holly, Black Alder
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Physiographic Region(s) Inhabited by Plant:
Mountain Piedmont Coastal Plain
Region: Mountain, Piedmont, Coastal Plain
States: Washington, DC, Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia
Plant Type: Shrub, Medium
Height: 6 - 12 feet
Spreads: 3 - 12 feet
Sun Exposure: Full Sun, Partial Sun, Shade
Soil Texture: Organic, Clay, Loamy, Sandy
Soil Moisture: Moist, Wet
pH: 4.5 - 6.5
Blooms in: June to July
Bloom Color: greenish white
Bears Fruit: August to February
Fruit Type: berry
Fruit Color: red
Fall Color: yellow to brown
Evergreen: no
Ground Cover: no
fresh tidal swamps, shrub swamps, forested wetlands
Wildlife Use: Song Birds, Water Fowl, Small Mammals, Bees
Notes: ornamental berries provide emergency winter bird food, poisonous to humans; female plants produce berries, need male plant to pollinate, prefers PH of 4.5-6.5